Hello to some beautiful birds from Gujarat and the world
The timing of breeding is variable in most of the tropics and subtropics (season varies with location and should occur at irregular intervals in some areas). The nest may be a small mound approximately twelve inches high, circular, and with a depressed center for the egg to be laid.
Both sexes look alike, but males are slightly larger than females, and females obtain their adult color slightly before males. Juveniles are grey-brown with some pink within the underparts, wings and tail, and therefore the legs and beak are mainly brown
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What’s within the entire collection?
The University of Pittsburgh is fortunate to have one among the rare, complete sets of John James Audubon’s Birds of America. it’s considered to be the only most precious set of volumes within the collections of the University Library System (ULS). Indeed, only 120 complete sets are known to exist.
While Audubon was creating Birds of America, he was also performing on a companion publication, namely, his Ornithological Biography. Both of those sets were acquired by William M. Darlington within the mid-nineteenth century and later donated, as a part of his extensive library, to the University of Pittsburgh. Recognizing that the Darlington Library includes significant historical materials, like rare books, maps, atlases, illustrations, and manuscripts, the ULS charted an ambitious course to digitize an outsized portion of Mr. Darlington’s collection, including the Birds of America.
A Brief History of Audubon’s Birds of America
John James Audubon (1785-1851) began to color every known (to him) North American bird within the early-nineteenth century. He eventually stopped at 435 paintings after he exhausted his personal resources. His original paintings of over one thousand birds (now owned by the New-York Historical Society), and therefore the hand-colored plates that were subsequently engraved from them, are considered unique. All the birds were painted life-size, and lots of are shown interacting with other birds and wildlife, often in violent, predatory ways.
Audubon sold the engraved plates during a subscription series in England, Europe, and North America. Original subscribers received five plates at a time (one large bird, one medium bird, three small birds) over a period between 1827 and 1838, at a price totaling about $1,000. it’s thought that no quite 120 complete sets exist today. Each set consists of 435 individual plates that are based upon the first paintings. Each plate was engraved, printed, and hand colored, in large part because of Robert Havell of London. While William Lizars, of Edinburgh, engraved the primary ten plates, Havell actually finished a number of those.
To replicate the particular size of a number of the larger birds, Audubon insisted that Havell engrave the plates on Whatman double elephant folio size mold-made paper (26 x 38 inches), the most important paper sheets available at the time (known even then as ”double elephant folio” size). Complete sets of the engraved, hand painted plates were frequently bound together by their individual owners, normally into four large volumes. Each of the volumes weighed sixty pounds or more. Today, ornithologists, art historians, rare book librarians, and collectors consider Audubon’s masterpiece the best work on North American ornithology ever published.
While Audubon was developing Birds of America, he was also performing on a companion publication, namely, his Ornithological Biography. Originally published in Edinburgh in 1831, this five-volume set contains lively narratives that describe each bird and includes additional information, like their habitat.
Indeed, his words frequently convey a picture within the reader’s mind that accurately portrays what he has painted. Take, for instance , the subsequent sentence, a part of his lengthy treatment on the Ectopistes migratorius which, by the way, was painted while Audubon was in Pittsburgh. “Indeed, the tenderness and affection displayed by these birds towards their mates, are within the highest degree striking.” Does that not ring true from his depiction of the male and feminine passenger pigeons?
The Donation of Audubon’s Birds of America
The daughters of William McCullough Darlington and Mary Carson Darlington, of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, donated their family library to the University of Pittsburgh in 1918 and 1925 as a memorial to their father. Birds of America was a part of the gathering that became the Darlington Memorial Library, established within the University’s Cathedral of Learning. consistent with one among Mr. Darlington’s record books, he paid $400 to get the entire set in 1852.
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The Preservation of Audubon’s Birds of America
In 2000, the top of Special Collections and therefore the head of Preservation performed a plate-by-plate assessment of the Audubon collection. they found a big number of paper tears, lines, stains, cigar ash, and smudges in various plates throughout the set. After carefully handling each plate, they came to understand that the set required the professional attention of a conservator so as to both better preserve the plates while at an equivalent time making them more accessible.